Blog

Definition of Digital Skills 0

Definition of Digital Skills

Posted by on Dec 9, 2013 in Blog, Information Technology Revolution

This entry is part 1 of 3 in the series Digital Skills for All

 

Digital skills draws its roots from stratified and complex convergence of several key skills concepts, namely IT literacy, ICT literacy, digital literacy, digital competence, ICT fluency, computer literacy, ICT skills, e-Skills, technological literacy, media literacy, information literacy, e-literacy, generic skills, 21st century skills, multi-literacies, and new literacies. Glister is credited with the widespread of use of the term digital literacy, which he described as the: ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from a wide range of sources when it is presented via computers. Digital skill is defined as

Digital skills involve the knowledge and ability to determine information needs from digital technology sources, and to appropriately use digital tools and facilities to input, access, organize, integrate and assess digital resources as well as to construct new knowledge, create media expressions and communicate with others. Digital skills include both technical skills associated with understanding and using digital systems, tools, and applications, as well as information processing skills, which are the cognitive underpinnings of digital proficiency (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada).

Learn More
Digital Skills Framework for the Canadian Workforce 0

Digital Skills Framework for the Canadian Workforce

Posted by on Dec 9, 2013 in Blog, Information Technology Revolution

This entry is part 2 of 3 in the series Digital Skills for All

framework

In light of the changing skills requirements regarding the use of digital technology, the Office of Literacy and Essential Skills (Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) commissioned a study (Chinien & Boutin, 2011) to develop and validate a digital skills framework for generic users of digital technology in the Canadian workplace. This work was done to support HRSDC’s current efforts to update the department‘s Essential Skills Framework and to re-examine the existing concept on computer use as one of the nine essential skills, to determine its continued relevance and to make the necessary adjustments in order to more fully reflect the changing skills needs of Canada‘s digital, knowledge-based economy.

Insight gained from a national and international review of various key digital concepts and major frameworks, buttressed by HRSDC’s research in foundational and transversal skills, were used as building blocks for developing the framework (Figure 1). As shown, digital skill is not depicted as a new skill concept, but rather a multifaceted concept which encapsulates four skill clusters: Digital Technical Skills; Digital Information Processing Skills; Foundational Skills; and Transversal Skills. These four skills clusters and their corresponding definitions were grouped together structurally into a digital skills framework. The HRSDC essential skills concepts provide the foundational skills to be able to work with digital technology generally, as well as the essential skills that support and grow with the development of proficiency in technology use – in an ongoing (transversal) way. In addition, the framework breaks down those underlying skills that manifest themselves more particularly when working with digital technology, including both digital technical skills and digital information processing skills.

Figure 1: Digital Skills Framework for Canadian Workers 

Digital Information Processing Skills

Communicate information Share digital information with others at work
Create information Generate new digital contents and knowledge by organizing, integrating, adapting, and applying digital information
Apply information Use information of various digital formats effectively and efficiently to perform job tasks
Assess information Judge the quality, relevance, usefulness, validity, and applicability of digital information
Integrate information Interpret, analyze, summarize, compare and contrast, combine, repurpose, and represent digital information
Organize information Decode, restructure, and protect digital information
Access information Locate, select, and retrieve digital information
Determine information needs Recognize, define, and articulate digital information needs
Input information Identify, recognize, record, and store digital information to facilitate retrieval and use

Transversal Skills

Thinking / Problem-Solving

Continuous Learning/

Working with Others

Transversal skills are the desirable broadly transferable, non-technical skills, which when combined with specific occupational/technical skills, contribute to the optimization of human performance at work.

ESSENTIAL

 DIGITAL SKILLS

IN THE CANADIAN

 WORKPLACE

Digital Technical Skills

Use Digital Systems and ToolsUse computers and other hardware to perform job tasks
Use Software ApplicationsSelect and use appropriate software to perform job tasks
Apply Security Measures in Digital EnvironmentsProtect hardware, software applications, data, and personal information

Foundational Skills

Reading, Writing, Oral Communication, Document Use, Numeracy

Foundation skills refer to gateway basic literacy and numeracy skills components for which there is often or always a minimum proficiency level required before someone can engage with digital technology and demonstrate or develop the more precise digital information processing skills.

 

The Canadian Digital Skills Framework includes a key set of information processing skills that Canadian workers can acquire to deploy digital skills effectively and efficiently. These information processing skills are: (Chinien & Boutin, 2011, pp. 2-3).

  • Create information: Generate new digital contents and knowledge by organizing, integrating, adapting, and applying digital information;
  • Apply information: Use information of various digital formats effectively and efficiently to perform job tasks;
  • Assess information: Judge the quality, relevance, usefulness, validity, and applicability of digital information;
  • Integrate information: Interpret, analyze, summarize, compare and contrast, combine, repurpose, and represent digital information;
  • Organize information: Decode, restructure, and protect digital information;
  • Access information: Locate, select, and retrieve digital information;
  • Determine information needs: Recognize, define, and articulate digital information needs; and
  • Input information: Identify, recognize, record, and store digital information to facilitate retrieval and use.

 

Learn More

Works Cited

Posted by on Dec 8, 2013 in Blog, Work Cited in All Blogs

This entry is part 1 of 1 in the series Blogs References

Abedor, A. J. (1972). Second draft technology: Development and field tests of a model for formative evaluation of self-instructional multi-media learning systems. . Viewpoints, 48(4), 9–43.

Ackerman, P. L., Kanfer, R., & Calderwood, C. (2010). Use it or lose it? Wii brain exercise practice and reading for domain knowledge. Psychology and Aging (Vol. 25, pp. 753–766). American Psychological Association.

AFLF (2010). A guide to creating learning design for VET.

AFLF (2013). 2013 VET E-standards. Australian Flexible Learning Framework. Retrieved August 06, 3013, from e-standards.flexiblelearning.net.au

Anderson, A. F., Kludt, R., & Bavelier, D. (2011). Verbal versus visual working memory skills in action video game players.

Andrews, G., Murphy, K., & Vanchevsky, M. A. (2006). Does video game playing improve executive functioning? (Allport, Ed.)Frontiers in Cognitive psychology. Nova Science Publishers US.

Arden, J. B. (2010). Rewire Your Brain: Think Your Way to a Better Life. Brain (p. 231). books.google.com. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.co.uk/Rewire-Your-Brain-Think-Better/dp/0470487291

Baalen, van P. J., & Moratis, L. (2001). Management education in the network economy: its context, content, and organization. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2001.

Bailey, K., West, R., & Anderson, C. A. (2010). A negative association between video game experience and proactive cognitive control. Psychophysiology, 47(1), 34–42.

Baker, K. (2002). Canadian Recommended E-learning Guidelines. Retrieved August 07, 2013, from http://www.futured.com/pdf/CanREGs Eng.pdf

Baker, E. L., & Alkin, M. C. (1984). Formative evaluation of instructional development. In R. K. B. . C. R. Dills (Ed.), Instructional development: the state of the art, II (pp. 319–332). Dubuque, Iowa:: Kendall Hunt Publishing Company.

Basak, C., Boot, W. R., Voss, M. W., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Can training in a real-time strategy video game attenuate cognitive decline in older adults? Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 765–777.

Bavelier, D., Achtman, R. L., Mani, M., & Föcker, J. (2011). Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players. Vision Research, 61(August), 132–43. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2011.08.007

Bavelier, D. Green, C. S., Pouget, A., & Schrater, P. (2012). Brain plasticity through the life span: learning to learn and action video games. The Annual review of Neuroscience, 35, 391–416.

Begley, S. (2007). Train your mind: Change your brain. New York. Ballantine Books.

Belchior, P. D. C., & Mann, W. M. M. (2007). Cognitive training with video games to improve driving skills and driving safety among older adults. University of Florida, United States — Florida.

Berry, A. S., Zanto, T. P., Clapp, W. C., Hardy, J. L., Delahunt, P. B., Mahncke, H. W., & Gazzaley, A. (2010). The Influence of Perceptual Training on Working Memory in Older Adults. (N. Rogers, Ed.)PLoS ONE, 5(7), 8.

Berthelot, S. (1978). Niveau de verbalisation d’un sujet dans le cadre de l’application d’une evaluation L.V.R. d’un document audio-visuel par le mode tutoriel. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,. Université de Montreal.

Bherer, L., Kramer, A. F., Arthur, F., Peterson, M. S., Matthews, S., Colcombe, S., … Becic, E. (2005). Training effects on dual-task performance: Are there age-related differences in plasticity of attentional control? Psychology and Aging, 20(4), 695–709.

Bherer, L., Kramer, A. F., Peterson, M. S., Colcombe, S., Erickson, K., & Becic, E. (2008). Transfer effects in task-set cost and dual-task cost after dual-task training in older and younger adults: further evidence for cognitive plasticity in attentional control in late adulthood. Experimental aging research, 34(3), 188–219.

Bisson, E., Contant, B., Sveistrup, H., & Lajoie, Y. (2007). Functional balance and dual-task reaction times in older adults are improved by virtual reality and biofeedback training. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 10(1), 16–23.

Blackford, R. C. (1989). Geriatric memory training: computer versus group instruction. Pasadena, CA.

Boot, W.R., Kramer, A.F., Simons, D.J., Fabiani, M., & Gratton, G. (2008). The effect of videogame playing on attention, memory and executive control. Acta Psychologica, 129, 387–398.

Bottiroli, S., & Cavallini, E. (2009). Can computer familiarity regulate the benefits of computer-based memory training in normal aging? A study with an Italian sample of older adults. Neuropsychology development and cognition Section B Aging neuropsychology and cognition, 16(4), 401–418.

Bradley, T. B. (1983). Remediation of cognitive deficits: a critical appraisal of the Feuerstein model. Journal of Mental Deficiency Research, 2(1), 79–92.

Brennan, R., McFadden, M., & Law, E. (2001). All that glitters is not gold: online delivery of education and training, Review of reseach. Australian National Training Authority, National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide. Australia. Retrieved from http://www.ncver.edu.au/research/proj/nr9008.pdf

Buschkuehl, M., Jaeggi, S. M., Hutchison, S., Perrig-Chiello, P., Däpp, C., Müller, M., … Perrig, W. J. (2008). Impact of working memory training on memory performance in old-old adults. Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 743–53.

Cain, M. S., Landau, A. N., & Shimamura, A. P. (2012). Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks. Attention perception psychophysics, 74(4), 641–7. doi:10.3758/s13414-012-0284-1

Cambre, M. A. (1981). Historical overview of formative evaluation of instructional media product. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 29(1), 3–25.

Campbell, V. (2008). Meditation and the brain with Dan Siegel, MD. Virginia Campbell. Retrieved from http://www.google.ca/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&ved=0CGMQFjAJ&url=http://docartemis.com/brain science/44-brainscience-Siegel.pdf&ei=IP3GUb30E7PF4APnuIGwAg&usg=AFQjCNHesi0jSh2szOAVIqmvNrNlKBEtMA&bvm=bv.48293060,d.dmg&cad=rja

Camusso, D. (2001). Le développement cognitif en formation d’adultes: Repères méthodologiques. In UNEVOC Canada & ICELP international conference, Unlocking the Human Potential to Learn. Winnipeg, Manitoba: UNEVOC Canada.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. (2008). In depth, retirement: Retiring mandatory retirement.

Canadian Council on Learning. (2006). Adult literacy: A synthesis of evidence. Ottawa.

Canadian Education Association. (2009). What did you do in school today?

Cassavaugh, N. D., & Kramer, A. F. (2009). Transfer of computer-based training to simulated driving in older adults. Applied Ergonomics, 40(5), 943–952.

Chinien, C, & Boutin, F. (2005). Framework for strengthening research in ICT-mediated learning.   6th International Conference on Information Technology Based Higher Education and Training 11–16 (2005). doi:10.1109/ITHET.2005.1560243

Chinien, C. (1987). Formative evaluation subjecty selection: FD/I cognitive style. Ohio State University.

Chinien, C. (1990). Examination of Cognitive Style FD/FI as a Learner Selection Criterion in Formative Evaluation. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology / La revue canadienne de l’apprentissage et de la technologie, 19, 19–39.

Chinien, Chris, & Boutin, F. (2011). Defining Essential Digital Skills in the Canadian Workplace. Retrieved from http://www.nald.ca/library/research/digi_es_can_workplace/digi_es_can_workplace.pdf

Chinien, C. ; Boutin, F. (1994). A framework for evaluating the effectiveness of instructional materials. Performance and Instruction Journal, 33(3), 15–18.

Chinien, C., Boutin, F., & Letteri, C. (1997). Empowering At-Risk Students to Stay in School Using a Cognitive-Based Instructional System. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 34(4), 42–63.

Chinien, C., Boutin, F., Letteri, C., Cap, O., & Porozny, G. (1995). Why are we not all born smart. Winnipeg.

Chisholm, J. D., Hickey, C., Theeuwes, J., & Kingstone, A. (2010). Reduced attentional capture in action video game players. Attention perception psychophysics, 72(3), 667–671.

Chopra, D., & Tanzi, R. E. (2012). Super brain. New York: Harmony books.

Clark, J. E., Lanphear, A. K., & Riddick, C. C. (1987). The effects of videogame playing on the response selection processing of elderly adults. Journal of Gerontology, 42(1), 82–85.

Claxton, G. (1999). Wise Up: The Challenge Of Lifelong Learning. London: Bloomsbury.

Colzato, L. S. (2010). DOOM’d to switch: superior cognitive flexibility in players of first person shooter games. Frontiers in Psychology, 1(April), 1–5. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00008

Croisile, B., Reilhac, G., Bélier, S., Tarpin-Bernard, F.; Noir, M. (2008). Brain training influence on cognitive function effectiveness at Boiron labs.

Dahlin, E., Neely, A. S., Larsson, A., Bäckman, L., & Nyberg, L. (2008). Transfer of learning after updating training mediated by the striatum. Science, 320(5882), 1510–2. doi:10.1126/science.1155466

Davis, R. H., Alexander, L. T., & Yelon, S. L. (1974). Learning system design: An approach to the improvement of instruction. (M. Hill, Ed.). New York.

Deary, I. J., Corley, J., Gow, A. J., Harris, S. E., Houlihan, L. M., Marioni, R. E., … Starr, J. M. (2009). Age-associated cognitive decline. British medical bulletin, 92, 135–152. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19776035

Dick, W. (1977). Formative evaluation. In L. J. Briggs (Ed.), Instructional design: principles and applications (pp. 113–333). Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Educational Technology Publications.

Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1985). The systematic design of instruction. Glenview, IL:: Scott, Foresman and Company.

Doidge, N. (2007). The Brain That Changes Itself: Stories of Personal Triumph from the Frontiers of Brain Science. Brain (p. 448). Viking Adult. Retrieved from http://us.penguingroup.com/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,9780670038305,00.html

Dougherty, K. M., & Johnston, J. M. (1996). Overlearning, fluency, and automaticity. The Behavior Analyst, 19(2), 289–292. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2733607/

Draganski, B, Gaser, C, Kempermann, G., Kuhn, H.G., Winkler, J., Buchel, C., May, A. (2006). Temporal and spatial dynamics of brain structure changes during extensive learning. Nat Neurosci, 26, 6314–7.

Drew Benjamin Waters, J. (1986). Video games: Utilization of a novel strategy to improve perceptual motor skills and cognitive functioning in the non-institutionalized elderly. Cognitive Rehabilitation, 4(2), 26–31.

Dustman, R. E., Emmerson, R. Y., Steinhaus, L. A., Shearer, D. E., & Dustman, T. J. (1992). The effects of videogame playing on neuropsychological performance of elderly individuals. Journal of Gerontology, 47(3), P168–P171.

Eckroth-Bucher, M., & Siberski, J. (2009). Preserving cognition through an integrated cognitive stimulation and training program. American journal of Alzheimers disease and other dementias, 24(3), 234–245.

Edwards, J. D., Wadley, V. G., Myers, R. E. S., Roenker, D. L., Cissell, G. M., & Ball, K. K. (2002). Transfer of a speed of processing intervention to near and far cognitive functions. Gerontologia (Basel), 48(5), 329–340.

Edwards, J. D., Wadley, V.G., Vance, D.E., Wood, K., Roenker, D.L., et al. (2007). The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging Mental Health, 9(3), 262–271.

Expert Panel on Older Workers. (2008). Supporting and engaging older workers in the new economy.

Faw, H. W., & Waller, T. G. (1976). Mathemagenic behaviors and efficiency in learning from prose materials: Review, critique and recommendations. Review of Educational Research, 46(4), 691–720.

Feng, J., Spence, I., & Pratt, J. (2007). Playing an action video game reduces gender differences in spatial cognition. Psychological Science, 18(10), 850–855.

Feuerstein, R., Rand, Y., Hoffman, M., & Miller, R. (1979). Cognitive modifiability in retarded adolescents: effects of Instrumental Enrichment. 1979. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 7(1), 20–29. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14744671

Finkel, S. I., & Yesavage, J. A. (1989). Learning mnemonics: a preliminary evaluation of a computer-aided instruction package for the elderly. Experimental Aging Research, 15(3-4), 199–201.

Futrell, H. K., & Geisert, P. (1984). The well trained computer: Designing systemic instructional material for the classroom microcomputer. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:: Educational Technology Publications.

Gagné, R. (1965). The conditions of learning and theory of instruction. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York.

Gagné, R. M., & Briggs, L. J. (1979). Principles of instructional design (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Geis, G. L., Weston, C. B., & Burt, C. W. (1984). Instructional development: Developmental testing. Unpublished manuscript.

Ghosheh, N., Lee, S., & McCann, D. (2006). Conditions of work and employment for older workers in industrialized countries: Understanding the issues. Geneva.

Gibson, G. D. (2001). Cognitive literacy: A 21st century imperative for education and community revitalization. In UNEVOC Canada & ICELP international conference, Unlocking the Human Potential to Learn. Winnipeg, Manitoba: UNEVOC Canada.

Godde, B., Noack, C.M. G., Windisch, C., & Voelcker-Jacobs, C. (n.d.). Online cognitive traiuning improves cognitive performance.

Goldstein, J., Cajko, L., Oosterbroek, M., Michielsen, M., Van Houten, O., & Salverda, F. (1997). Video games and the elderly. Social Behavior and Personality, 25(4), 345–352. doi:10.2224/sbp.1997.25.4.345.

Government of Canada. (2008). Government response to the third report of the Standing Committee on Human Resources, Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities Employability in Canada: Preparing for the future.

Green, C. S. & Bavelier, D. (2006). Enumeration versus multiple object tracking: the case of action video game players. Cognition, 101(1), 217–45. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2005.10.004

Green, C. S. & Bavelier, D. (2008). Exercising your brain: a review of human brain plasticity and training-induced learning. Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 692–701. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2896818&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

Green, C. S., Pouget, A., & Bavelier, D. (2010). Improved probabilistic inference as a general learning mechanism with action video games. Current Biology, 20(17), 1573–1579.

Green, C. S., Sugarman, M. A., Medford, K., Klobusicky, E., & Bavelier, D. (2012). The effect of action video game experience on task-switching. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 984–994. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.12.020

Greenfield, P. M. (2009). Technology and informal education: what is taught, what is learned. Science, 323(5910), 69–71.

Hardy, J.; Scanlon, M. (2009). The science behind lumosity. Retrieved from http://www.lumosity.com/documents/the_science_behind_lumosity.pdf

Harrell, E. (2010, April). Study: Brain exercises don’t improve cognition. Time.

Health Canada. (2012). Factsheet: Brain Canada’s Brain Research Fund. Retrieved from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/media/nr-cp/_2012/2012-60fs-eng.php

Hebb, D. (1949). The Organization of Behavior: A Neuropsychological Theory. Erlbaum, John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., Wilson, R. S., & Lindenberger, U. (2008). Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development: Can the Functional Capacity of Older Adults Be Preserved and Enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(1), 1–65. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01034.x

Hinman, M. R. (2002). Comparison of two short-term balance training programs for community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 23(3), 10–20.

Hong, J.-C., Hwang, M.-Y., Tam, K.-P., Lai, Y.-H., & Liu, L.-C. (2012). Effects of cognitive style on digital jigsaw puzzle performance: A GridWare analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(3), 920–928. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.12.012

Howard, P. J. (2006). The owner’s manual for the brain (3rd ed.). Austin, Texas: Brad Press.

Human Resources Professionals Association of Ontario. (2007). Submission by the Human Resources Professionals Association of Ontario to the Expert Panel on Older Workers.

Jausovec, N., Jausovec, K., & Gerlic, I. (2006). The influence of Mozart’s music on brain activity in the process of learning. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117(12), 2703–14. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2006.08.010

Jennings, J. M., Webster, L. M., Kleykamp, B. A., & Dagenbach, D. (2005). Recollection Training and Transfer Effects in Older Adults: Successful Use of a Repetition-Lag Procedure. Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition, 12(3), 278–298.

Johansson, B. B. (2006). Music and brain plasticity. European Review, 14(01), 49. doi:10.1017/S1062798706000056

Kandaswamy, S. (1976). Learner verification and revision: An experimental comparison of two methods. Indiana University.

Karjanmaa, R. L. (2001). Mediated learning in virtual learning environments. In UNEVOC Canada & ICELP international conference, Unlocking the Human Potential to Learn. Winnipeg, Manitoba: UNEVOC Canada.

Karle, J. W., Watter, S., & Shedden, J. M. (2010). Task switching in video game players: Benefits of selective attention but not resistance to proactive interference. Acta Psychologica, 134(1), 70–78.

Katz, L. C., & Rubin, M. (1999). Keep your brain alive: 83 neurobic exercises to help prevent memory loss and increase mental fitness. Work. Workman Pub.

Keillor, C., & Littlefield, J. (2012). Engaging adults learners with technology. Retrieved July 12, 2013, from http://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/libtech_conf/2012/sessions/43/

Klusmann, V., Evers, A., Schwarzer, R., Schlattmann, P., Reischies, E. M., Heuser, I., & Dimeo, F. C. (n.d.). Complex Mental and Physical Activity in Older Women and Cognitive Performance: A 6-month Randomized Controlled Trial. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Volume 65A(Issue 6), 680–688.

Knowles, M. S., Holton, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2005). The Adult Learner. The Adult Learner (Vol. 24, p. 378). Butterworth-Heinemann. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/dp/0750678372

Kueider, A. M., Parisi, J. M., Gross, A. L., & Rebok, G. W. (2012). Computerized Cognitive Training with Older Adults: A Systematic Review. (S. Brucki, Ed.)PLoS ONE, 7(7), e40588. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040588

Kulik, J. A. (1994). Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In I. E. L. B. & H. F. O. (Eds.) (Ed.), Technology assessment in education and training. Hillsdale, NJ.: Erlbaum.

Lajoie, Y. (2004). Effect of computerized feedback postural training on posture and attentional demands in older adults. Aging clinical and experimental research, 16(5), 363–368.

Larson McClarty, K., Orr, A., Frey, P. M., Dolan, R. P., Vassileva, V., McVay, A. (2012). A literature review of gaming in education (pp. 1–30).

LearningRx. (2011). 2011 Report of LearningRx training Results. Retrieved July 23, 1BC, from http://www.learningrx.com/downloads/2011-learningrx-results-report.pdf

Li, S.-C., Schmiedek, F., Huxhold, O., Röcke, C., Smith, J., & Lindenberger, U. (2008). Working memory plasticity in old age: practice gain, transfer, and maintenance. Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 731–742.

Lövdén, M., Bäckman, L., Lindenberger, U., Schaefer, S., & Schmiedek, F. (2010). A theoretical framework for the study of adult cognitive plasticity. Psychological Bulletin, 136(4), 659–676. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20565172

Lowry, C. (1989). Supporting and Facilitating Self Directed Learning. ric Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education. Retrieved from http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/89dig.htm

Lumosity. (2013). Human cognition project: Completed Research behind Lumosity. Retrieved July 21, 2013, from http://hcp.lumosity.com/research/completed

Lustig, C., & Flegal, K. E. (2008). Targeting latent function: encouraging effective encoding for successful memory training and transfer. Psychology and Aging, 23(4), 754–64. doi:10.1037/a0014295

Mahncke, H. W., Connor, B. B., Appelman, J., Ahsanuddin, O. N., Hardy, J. L., Wood, R. A., … Merzenich, M. M. (2006). Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: a randomized, controlled study. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(33), 12523–12528.

McClurg, P. A., Chaille, C. (1987). Computer games: environments for developing spatial cognition. F. Educ. Comput., Res. 3, 95–111.

McFarlane, A., Sparrowhawk, A., & Heald, Y. (2002). Report on the educational use of games: An exploration by TEEM of the contribution which games can make to the education process. (Cambridges.).

McMullin, J. A., Tomchick., T. L. (n.d.). Canada: To be Employed or not to be Employed? An examination of Employment Incentives and Disincentives for Older Workers in Canada.

McMullin, J.A., Cooke, M. . D. R. (2004). Labour force aging and skill shortages in Canada and Ontario. Ottawa, Canada.

Merisotis, J.P., Phipps, R. A. (1999). What’s the Difference?: A Review of Contemporary Research on the Effectiveness of Distance Learning in Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.ihep.org/Publications/publications-detail.cfm?id=88

Messick, S. (1976). Individuality and learning: Implication of cognitive styles and creativity for human development. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Mezirow, J. (1981). A Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education. (M. Tight, Ed.)Adult Education Quarterly, 32(1), 3–24. doi:10.1177/074171368103200101

Mezirow, J. (1995). Transformation theory of adult learning. In Defense of the Lifeworld. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995.

Mozolic, J. L., Long, A. B., Morgan, A. R., Rawley-Payne, M., & Laurienti, P. J. (2011). A cognitive training intervention improves modality-specific attention in a randomized controlled trial of healthy older adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 32(4), 655–668.

Muehlen, M. (n.d.). Shifting from teaching to learning approaches. In ECDC public health training section. Stockholm, Sweden.

Nathenson, M. B., Henderson, E. S. (1980). Using Student feedback to improve learning materials. London: Croom Helm.

Neimi, H. (2002). Empowering learners in virtual university. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from https://www.edu.helsinki.fi/svy/kvanti/mittavaline/mat/hannele_niemen_artikkeli.pdf

Nesbit, J., Belfer, K., Leacock, T. (n.d.). Learning object review instrument.

NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke). (n.d.). Brain basics: Know your brain. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/know_your_brain.htm

OECD. (2007). Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science. (O. For Economic Co-operation & Development, Eds.)Learning (pp. 13–18). OECD Publishing. doi:10.1787/9789264029132-en

Okagaki, L., & Frensch, P. A. (1994). Effects of video game playing on measures of spatial performance: Gender effects in late adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15(1), 33–58. doi:10.1016/0193-3973(94)90005-1

Owen, A. M., Hampshire, A., Grahn, J. A., Stenton, R., Dajani, S., Burns, A. S., … Ballard, C. G. (2010). Putting brain training to the test. Nature, 465(7299), 775–778. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nature09042

Packiam, T. (2011). Training your brain for dummies. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley.

Peretz, C., Korczyn, A. D., Shatil, E., Aharonson, V., Birnboim, S., & Giladi, N. (2011). Computer-based, personalized cognitive training versus classical computer games: a randomized double-blind prospective trial of cognitive stimulation. Neuroepidemiology, 36(2), 91–99. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21311196

Ponce, R. (2012). REVIEW: Lumosity – What Everyone Should Know about the “Science” behind these Brain Games. Retrieved July 07, 2013, from http://www.brainsforgames.rachelnponce.com/2012/04/website-review-lumosity.html

Popham, W. J. (1975). Educational Evaluation. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.:: Prentice Hall.

PositScience. (2013). Proven in labs: peer-reviewed research. Retrieved July 20, 2013, from http://www.positscience.com/why-brainhq/world-class-science/peer-reviewed-research

Prskawetz, A., Fent, T., & Guest, R. (n.d.). Workforce aging and labour productivity: The Role of supply and demand of labour force in G7 countries.

Ralls, R. S. (1997). Age and Computer Training Performance: A Test of Training Enhancement through Cognitive Practice. Chair IRWIN L GOLDSTEIN. University of Maryland College Park; 0117.

Rasmusson, D. X., Rebok, G. W., Bylsma, F. W., & Brandt, J. (1999). Effects of Three Types of Memory Training in Normal Elderly. Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition Neuropsychology Development and Cognition Section B, 6(1), 56–66. doi:10.1076/anec.6.1.56.790

Rebok, G. W., RASMUSSON, D.X., and BRANDT, J. (1996). Prospects for Computerized Memory Training in Normal Elderly: Effects of Practice on Explicit and Implicit Memory Tasks. Applied Cognitive psychology. VOL. 10, 21 1-223 (, 10(21), 211–223.

Roenker, D. L., Cissell, G. M., Ball, K. K., Wadley, V. G., & Edwards, J. D. (2003). Speed-of-processing and driving simulator training result in improved driving performance. Human Factors, 45(2), 218–233.

Romiszowski, A. J. (1986). Developing auto-instructional materials. (Nichols  Publishing). New York.

Rosenzweig, M. R., & Bennett, E. L. (1996). Psychobiology of plasticity: Effects of training and experience on brain and behavior. Behavioural Brain Research, 78, 57-65.

Russell, T. L. (1999). No significant difference phenomenon (NSDP). Raleigh, NC.

Salthouse, T. A. (2006). Mental Exercise and Mental Aging. Evaluating the Validity of the “Use It or Lose It” Hypothesis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(1), 68–87. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00005.x

Schmidt, R. A., & Bjork, R. A. (1992). New Conceptualizations of Practice: Common Principles in Three Paradigms Suggest New Concepts for Training. Psychological Science, 3(4), 207–217. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1992.tb00029.x

Scholz, J., Klein, M. C., Behrens, T. E., & Johansen-Berg, H. (2009). Training induces changes in white-matter architecture. Nat Neurosci, 12, 1370–1. doi:1

Siegel, D. (2010). The developing mind (Second.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Sharpbrains. (2012). Market research: Executive Summary. Retrieved from http://sharpbrains.com/executive-summary/

Shatil, E. (2013). Does combined cognitive training and physical activity training enhance cognitive abilities more than either alone? A four-condition randomized controlled trial among healthy older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 5(8). doi:10.3389/fnagi.2013.00008

Slabbert, J. (2001). The powerhouse of mediated learning experience. In UNEVOC-Canada International Conference: Unlocking the human potential to learn. Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Slegers, K., Van Boxtell, M., & Joles, J. (2009). Effects of computer training and internet usage on cognitive abilities in older adults: a randomized controlled study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 21(1), 43–54.

Smith, G. E., Housen, P., Yaffe, K., Ruff, R., Kennison, R. F., Mahncke, H. W., & Zelinski, E. M. (2009). A cognitive training program based on principles of brain plasticity: results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(4), 594–603. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19220558

Snow, R. E. (1976). Aptitude-treatment interactions and indiidualized alternatives in higher education. In Individuality and learning: Implications of cognitive styles and creativity for human development. San Francisco, CA.: Jossey Bass.

Standing Committee on Human Resources Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities. (2008). Employability in Canada: Preparing for the Future. Ottawa.

Stolovitch, H. D. (1975). From models to modules: Application of an adapted model for instructional development to the design, production and evaluation of audiovisual training modules. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,. University of Indiana.

Strobach, T., Frensch, P. A., & Schubert, T. (2012). Video game practice optimizes executive control skills in dual-task and task switching situations. Acta Psychologica, 140(1), 13–24. doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.02.001

Subrahmanyam, K., & Greenfield, P. M. (1994). Effect of video game practice on spatial skills in girls and boys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15(1), 13–32. doi:10.1016/0193-3973(94)90004-3

Sun Life Financial. (2013). News releases: Canadians expecting to be retired at age 66 declines by almost 50 per cent in five years. Retrieved August 18, 2013, from http://www.sunlife.ca/Canada/sunlifeCA/About+us/Media+centre/News+releases/2013/Canadians+expecting+to+be+retired+at+age+66+declines+by+almost+50+per+cent+in+five+years?vgnLocale=en_CA

Tarpin-Bernard, F., & Croisile, B. (n.d.). Conditions for Maximizing Effects of 90 Days of Brain Training. Retrieved July 18, 2013, from http://www.scientificbraintrainingpro.com/rsc/sbtpro_docs/conditions-for-maximizing-of-90-days-of-brain-training.pdf

Thomas, C., & Baker, C. I. (2012). Teaching an adult brain new tricks: A critical review of evidence for training-dependent structural plasticity in humans. NeuroImage, null(null). doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.03.069

Torres, A. C. S. (2011). Cognitive effects of video games on old people. Special Issue Disability virtual reality Art-abilitation and music, 10(1), 55–58.

US Department of Education. (2010). Evaluation of Evidence-based Practices in Online Learning. Washington, DC.

Vance, D., Dawson, J., Wadley, V., Edwards, J., Roenker, D., Rizzo, M., & Ball, K. (2007). The Accelerate Study: The Longitudinal Effect of Speed of Processing Training on Cognitive Performance of Older Adults. Rehabilitation Psychology, 52(1), 89–96. doi:10.1037/0090-5550.52.1.89

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society. (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman, Eds.).Memory (Vol. Mind in So, pp. 381–381). Harvard University Press. Retrieved from http://generative.edb.utexas.edu/classes/knl2008sum2/eweekly/vygotsky1978.pdf

Wadley, V. G., Benz, R. L., Ball, K. K., Roenker, D. L., Edwards, J. D., & Vance, D. E. (2006). Development and evaluation of home-based speed-of-processing training for older adults. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 87(6), 757–763.

Wager, J. C. (1980). An examination of aptitude level and stage in the formative evaluation of instructional material. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,. Florida State University.

Wan, C. Y., & Schlaug, G. (2010). Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span. The Neuroscientist a review journal bringing neurobiology neurology and psychiatry, 16(5), 566–577. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2996135&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

WDM-Consultants. (2011). Managing to last: Older workers labour market inclusion and extension. Ottawa: ON.

Which? (2009). Do brain trainers work? Retrieved July 07, 2013, from http://www.which.co.uk/technology/archive/guides/brain-training/do-brain-trainers-work/

Yerkes, R.M. & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459–482.

Learn More

Developmental Testing of ICT-Mediated Learning Materials

Posted by on Dec 7, 2013 in Blog, Quality Standards for E-Learning

This entry is part 4 of 5 in the series Instructional Effectiveness

While a general consensus is emerging regarding the need to integrate ICTs in teaching and learning, there is little empirical evidence to support the decision-making process. In fact, over 350 research projects conducted during the past 70 years have failed to establish a significant difference in effectiveness between ICT and traditional methods (Baalen and Moratis, 2001). While these findings tend to suggest that ICTs do not considerably improve teaching and learning, the fundamental question that remains unanswered is: Were the researchers assessing the effectiveness of ICTs or were they simply assessing the effectiveness of instructional products that were less than perfect?

In spite of considerable progress made in the development of instructional materials through the adoption of systematic instructional design, practitioners still have difficulty in producing efficient and effective instructional materials because our knowledge of human learning is still limited. Many of the critical assumptions that are made during the design and development of instructional products are based on learning theories that are weak. The final product is therefore less than perfect (Dick, W.; & Carey, 1990), (Gagne, R. M.; Briggs, 1979). Conscious of this inherent difficulty, and recognizing that the design process is not foolproof, instructional developer have included a formative evaluation component in their models (Geis,  Weston, & Burt, 1984). The purpose of formative evaluation is to provide instructional developers with an opportunity to identify and correct errors and problems within a set of instructional materials while they are still in a developmental stage (Baker and Alkin, 1984). Formative evaluation is defined as the “evaluation of educational programmes while they are still in some stage of development” (Baker & Alkin, 1984, p. 230). Formative evaluation is: “the empirical validation of many of the theoretical constructs, which are included in earlier components of the instructional design model. If the theory is weak the product is less than properly effective. Since our present theories and practices are imperfect, we need empirical data as a basis for improving the product” (Dick, 1977, p. 312).

Formative evaluation of instructional material is an essential activity in the design and development of instruction, because there is a lack of comprehensive theory of learning to guide practice (Nathenson, M. B.; Henderson, 1980). Formative evaluation attempts to appraise such programs in order to inform the program developers how to ameliorate deficiencies in their instructions. The heart of the formative evaluator’s strategy is to gather empirical evidence regarding the efficacy of various components of the instructional sequence and then consider the evidence in order to isolate deficits and suggest modifications (Popham, 1975). Earlier attempts for trying out and revising instructional materials date back to the 1920s, with educational films and radio (Cambre, 1981). There are two broad questions addressed by formative evaluation activities. The first relates to the content and the technical quality of the material, and the second pertains to its learnability. The evaluation of content and technical quality is addressed through expert verification and revision. It is generally believed that the students are most qualified for providing feedback data to assess the learnability (Nathenson and Henderson, 1980).

Expert Evaluation and Revision

The use of expert opinion in assessing the worth of an instructional product is probably the oldest evaluation strategy used in education. Expert opinion is an important evaluation tool because it is quick, it is cost-effective, and it tends to enhance the credibility of an instructional product. Additionally, expert opinion can be used to modify a product before it is used by students. Types of experts are commonly used for the evaluation process, namely: content, language, target, media, format, and delivery system experts:

  • The content expert will ensure that the content is relevant, accurate and up-to-date.
  • The language expert will ensure that the language is appropriate for the target population.
  • The target population expert will ensure that the material is appropriate for the designated group that will be using it. If the target population is adult learners, then the expert will ascertain that the material being evaluated is in agreement with the basic principles, philosophies, assumptions, and established theories in adult education.
  • The media expert will focus on the cost-effectiveness of the proposed materials. Typical cost considerations include: capital costs, installation/renovation costs, time cost, support personnel, training, maintenance, cost of alternatives, as well as shared costs. The expert can also assess the societal costs of not implementing a technology-based product.
  • The media expert will assess the particular characteristics of the learning technology in order to determine its appropriateness for addressing the learning needs of the target population.
  • The format expert will determine if the material has been packaged to maximize its effectiveness and efficiency.
  • The delivery expert will ascertain that the material meets standards established by best practices. The effectiveness of instructional material depends to a large extent on how well instructional developers have been able to support internal learning processes with external events.

Learner Verification and Revision (LVR)

Learner Verification and Revision (LVR) consists of a three-stage approach (Dick and Carey, 1985). These stages are: one-to-one evaluation, small group evaluation, and field test.

One-to-One Evaluation

The one-to-one evaluation occurs in the earlier phase of development (Dick and Carey, 1985). It serves to “identify and remove the most obvious errors in the instruction, as well as to obtain the initial student’s reaction to the content” (p. 199). At least three students representative of the target population should be selected for this process: one with above average ability, another with average ability and a third with below average ability. In a one-to-one evaluation the student is exposed to the instructional materials as well as to all pre-tests, post-tests and embedded tests within the material. The one-to-one evaluation is an interactive process between student and evaluator. Data are collected through observation, interview, embedded tests, post-tests, and an attitude questionnaire. The data can either be used for making on the spot revisions for minor problems or delayed revisions for more complex ones. The one-to-one evaluation can enable the developer to uncover gross misconceptions in information processing. Once these misconceptions are uncovered, the material can be easily modified to address the problems.

Small Group Evaluation

The second stage of formative evaluation is conducted with a group of eight to twenty students representative of the target population (Dick and Carey, 1985). The small group evaluation has two main purposes: to validate modifications made to the material following the one-to-one evaluation, and to ascertain if the student can use the material without the help of the evaluator. The term “small group” refers only to the number of students involved in the evaluation process. Small group evaluation does not imply that all students should be assembled in one location, and be evaluated all at once. In a small group evaluation, the students are provided with all instructional materials and tests. They are instructed to study the material at their own pace. The evaluator intercedes only if a major problem occurs prohibiting the student from proceeding without help. After interacting with the materials and tests, the students are given an attitude questionnaire in order to obtain their reactions. Data gathered during the small group evaluation are used to further refine the instructional material.

Field Test

The field test or summative developmental evaluation is designed to verify the effectiveness of previous verifications and revisions performed during earlier phases of evaluation. The field testing also helps to ascertain if the instructional material will function smoothly, and whether it will be accepted by students, teachers, and administrators in the intended setting (Dick and Carey, 1985). The focus of the evaluation is on the merit of the instructional product in terms of achievement, attitude and study time.

Risk Assessment

In spite of the importance of formative evaluation, most instructional products in current use have been systematically evaluated. The costs and time required are two main deterrents to including formative evaluation in the instructional development process. A risk assessment can help to weigh the time and the costs constraints against the consequences of making an inappropriate decision when adopting a technology-based learning product.  Although most experts recommend a three-stage formative evaluation process , there is some empirical evidence in the literature (Wager, 1980b), and (Kandaswamy, 1976) suggesting that small group evaluation can be eliminated without significantly affecting the overall effectiveness of the revised product.

Although the importance of formative evaluation is well evidenced in the literature, the state of the art is still an underdeveloped, underconceptualized field of inquiry. There is a paucity of empirical foundations or rationales to support the guidelines and recommendations for the process. Research efforts are needed to improve and validate formative evaluation methodologies in current use, so as to give more credibility to the formative evaluation process.

Learn More

Canadian Guidelines for E-learning Quality Assurance

Posted by on Dec 7, 2013 in Blog, Quality Standards for E-Learning

This entry is part 5 of 5 in the series Instructional Effectiveness

Baker (2002) has developed some guidelines for assessing the quality of e-learning in Canada. These quality guidelines are generic and are therefore broadly applicable to any area and level of education. Following is a brief summary of these guidelines adapted to the specific needs of this project.

Learner management:

Instructional product/service information for potential learners is: 

  • Clear;
  • Current;
  • Accurate;
  • Comprehensive;
  • Complete; and
  • Readily available.

Advertising, recruiting and admissions information includes: 

  • Pre-requisites and entry requirements;
  • The program overview;
  • Specific delivery format;
  • Course level and credit points;
  • Course length and degree requirements;
  • Types of assignments and grading methods;
  • Learning assessment procedures and evaluation criteria; and
  • All applicable fees, if any. 

Registration procedures that include: 

  • A clear statement of expectations of learners;
  • An intake and placement procedures that provide for individualized program and assessment and recognition of prior learning; and
  • An orientation procedure. 

Management of learners’ records 

  • Document learners enroute and final achievement;
  • Ensure confidentiality of records; and
  • Give learners access to their records. 

Technological support for the delivery and management of learning is: 

  • Navigable;
  • Reliable;
  • Sensitive to bandwidth constraints of students;
  • Compliant with current technology and ICT standards;
  • Appropriate to the subject matter content and skills;
  • Appropriate to the intended learning outcomes;
  • Appropriate to the characteristics and circumstances of the learner;
  • Easily updateable and frequently updated;
  • Designed to promote active learning;
  • Designed to support prior learning;
  • Designed to support collaborative learning and social networking;
  • Designed to support flexible learning;
  • Designed to include assistive devices for persons with disabilities; and
  • Designed to assist learners to use the technology system for accessing the learning program. 

Learning assessment is:

  • Authentic;
  • Competency-based;
  • valid and reliable;
  • Frequent and timely; and
  • Immediate feedback to learners. 

Instructional materials are: 

  • Designed and developed by experts;
  • Learner friendly;
  • Interesting in content;
  • Appealing to learners;
  • Well-organized;
  • Free of cultural, racial, class, age, and gender bias;
  • Accessible to those with disabilities;
  • Free from errors; and
  • Customizable and adaptable to learner needs and abilities. 

Learning content is: 

  • Credible with sources identified;
  • Accurate;
  • Relevant; and
  • Culturally sensitive;. 

Learning package includes: 

  • Course description;
  • Learning objectives;
  • Assessment and completion requirements;
  • Learning resources;
  • Course activities and assignments;
  • Quizzes and examinations; and
  • Access to answers for questions/quizzes. 

Appropriate and necessary personnel include: 

  • Qualified support staff with teaching experience and relevant work experience and/or current knowledge in the field;
  • Appropriate skills for teaching online; and
  • Process support persons. 

Continuous improvements based on routine reviews and evaluation of:

  • Learner support services;
  • Course content and objectives;
  • Learning materials;
  • Instructional design;
  • Student learning and student achievement;
  • Policies and management practices;
  • Operational procedures; and
  • Learner satisfaction;
Learn More

Elements of Program Quality

Posted by on Dec 7, 2013 in Blog, Quality Standards for E-Learning

This entry is part 2 of 5 in the series Instructional Effectiveness

Proponents of quality in technology-mediated learning or e-learning do not agree on what constitutes quality. Given the proliferation of e-learning some attempts are being made to develop quality standards for the use of technology for teaching and learning. The purpose of e-learning quality standards are:

  • Maximize the validity, integrity and portability of e-learning;
  • Ensure that resource development follows internationally accepted specifications and that the technologies and applications used to build and deliver the resources ensure the most consistent operation and widest possible use and reuse of those resources;cilitate interoperability of learning resources and systems, and remove barriers to e-learning (AFLF, 2013, p.4). 

E-learning quality standards also ensure that the learner will acquire content skills and knowledge that are relevant and transferable to real world situations (Baker, 2002).

The program design must be underpinned by a sound learning theory in order to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the instructional product. The product will also have the following positive outcomes for learners:

  • Captures the interest of learners and motivate them to learn the material;
  • Gives learners a sense of ownership in their learning;
  • Ensures that learners are cognitively stimulated and engaged in the learning process;
  • Give learners ample opportunity to practice skills being learned;
  • Learning is scaffolded and supported;
  • Encourages the deployment of metacognition (AFLF, 2010, p. 4). 

In defining the conditions of learning, the education theorist Robert Gagné has proposed nine events of instruction, which activate the processes of information processing to support effective learning.  Gagné’s (1965) nine events of learning are commonly used as a basic framework for developing instructional materials. These events are:

  • Gaining attention;
  • Informing the learner of the objective;
  • Stimulating recall of prerequisite learned capabilities;
  • Presenting the stimulus material;
  • Providing learning guidance;
  • Eliciting performance;
  • Providing feedback about performance correctness;
  • Assessing the performance; and
  • Enhancing retention and transfer. 

The use of systematic instructional design and development processes to develop instructional materials for augmenting analytical skills is important. A good program design includes the following steps:

  • Analyze learning needs;
  • Design instructional materials;
  • Develop instructional materials;
  • Evaluate instructional materials; and
  • Assess the learnability, effectiveness and efficiency of the instructional materials (AFLF, 2010).
Learn More
%d bloggers like this: